Infrared Spectroscopy in Homeopathic Solutions does not Register Biophysical Effects after Avogadro's Number

Prof. Ignat Ignatov,
2006, Sofia, Bulgaria

Homeopathic treatment differs from conventional medical treatment in that the homeopathic remedies are made during a process called potentization. This potentization process, invented by a medical doctor called Samuel Hahnemann in the early 1800’s, diluted plant, mineral and organic substances beyond Avogadro’s number.


It is accepted that potentization is the process that transfers information from the diluted substance to the water/ethanol. Since the homeopathic remedies work well, even beyond Avogadro’s number 6,02 x 10-23, the medical and scientific communities could not understand how the information was passed on since beyond Avogadro’s number there should not be any molecule from the primary substance dissolved in solution. The question about the possibilities of homeopathic treatment is still open in science. Objective physical, chemical, biological and medical analyses are required in order to prove the efficacy of homeopathy. The question of how long information is stored by the water molecules is controversial in modern science. On the other hand, water has a number of unique properties that allow it to store and disseminate information as a result of the external physical or chemical factor of influence. In a physical sense the correct term is “informationability” of water (Prof. Ignatov).

Living organisms and man are complex self-organizing systems. They are open, because they continually exchange substances and energy with the environment. The changes in the open systems become stable over time by what Nobel holder Prigogine and Nicolis [1973] described as dissipative structures or self-organization phenomena. This was used to explain how self-organization occurs in homeopathic dilutions and in the organism by Delinick [1991] and [2000].

It has been proven experimentally that water is also a self-organizing system (Antonov, Galabova, 1992). The expectations are that changes in water as a result of an external influence will be relatively stable in time. This signifies that water “remembers” physical or chemical influences.

It looks like the water drop evaporates gradually. Antonov and Yuskesselieva prove a new physical effect. The water drop evaporates discreetly ("unevenly"). This effect depends on the energy states of the hydrogen bonds between the oxygen atoms of the water molecules and the hydrogen atoms of neighboring molecules.

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Antonov and Galabova prove through spectral analysis that water is an open and self-organizing system. Water and the living organisms react sensitively to energy flows and store information from the environment. They apply the method of Differential Non-equilibrium Energy Spectrum (DNES).

Depending on the energy status, the energy from the environment is either received in the living organisms (“give” mode) or is lost (“take”mode) (Prof. Ignatov, Antonov, Galabova, 1998). The same authors prove that in “give” and “take” mode an energy redistribution is effected between water molecules.

The water molecule clusters are the smallest and most unstable self-organizing structures in Nature (Prof. Ignatov, 2005). Alterations in the water clusters as a result of internal influences could be relatively stable in time. The larger the cluster formation, the longer time information is stored regarding the physical or chemical factor. Stable self-organizing structures are obtained, which could carry future information . Water molecules are restructured as a result of external influences.

In order to explain the structuring of clusters, one should approach it from a quantum-mechanic way. In the contrary case, one would find it hard to explain how the water molecules are structured in geometric clusters (“polymers”). The classic polymer – this is a molecule in which the atoms

are connected through covalent bonds, not through hydrogen ones. It is experimentally proven, that 10% of the hydrogen bonds in ice are covalent (Isaac, 2002).

There exist interesting proof already that several molecules from a certain substance can significantly change the structure of water clusters. Homeopathy is a classical example for this. Experiments were conducted under the leadership of the eminent French immunologist Benveniste. The homeopathic principle was reproduced on biological models. When to one of the immune cells types in man specific antibodies interacting with them were added, a cell reaction was observed. Upon decrease of the concentration of the antibodies in some dilutions, an effect was observed, and in other cases – it disappeared. Such an alteration of biological activity of “solutions” was also observed in concentrations when the probability of the presence of even one protein molecule was only slight. The authors presumed that the transfer of biological information was due to the “memory” of water. “Double blind” experiments with homeopathic solutions of Benveniste do not prove the initially obtained positive results.

Experiments have been conducted with inorganic substances, which were diluted according to the homeopathic principle. Ray decided to disprove the homeopathic views. He diluted sodium chloride (NaCl) and lithium chloride (LiCl) to a minus tenth degree. He also researched water with thermo-luminescence. The strange thing was that the researched solutions had a different spectrum.

Research has been effected concerning the changes in the spectrum of homeopathic solutions from 1 to 15 potencies (“solutions”) (Dr. Ignatov, 2005). The research was conducted through the DNES method of natrium muraticum (NaCl) . At 1 CH the solution has 0,01 %, and at 2 CH it contains 0,0001% of NaCl, etc.

In this process the solution passes the Avogadro number. After this value it is accepted that no molecules of the diluted substance are present.

hydrogen bonds energy
Dependence between average hydrogen bonds energy
in homeopathic solution and its potencies
(dilutions). (Ignatov, 2005)

Analyses show that up to 6 CH, the changes in the homeopathic solutions are close to the result at 1 CH. At 5 CH the concentration of the solution is 10-10 for NaCl, as in Ray’s experiments. After 11 CH, the result is close to or is in the framework of the statistical error.

The larger number of molecules of NaCl in the initial potencies creates conditions for stability of the clusters formed from the initial substance and the water molecules. The potency process “transfers” information to the larger potencies as well. This information is more “unstable”, when, subsequently, it is transferred by water molecules only.

Studies of the properties of homeopathic solutions have one peculiarity. In the homeopathic solution the effect is influenced not only by the diluted substance and the potentiation, but also by a third feature that researchers do not report. The solution itself is potentiated in an electromagnetic device and electromagnetic fields indicate to the device an influence on the hydrogen bonds between water molecules. This means that this method of preparation of homeopathic solutions can not serve for the making of fundamental conclusions about informational properties of water (Dr. Ignatov).