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Ignatov I., Mosin O.V. (2013) Possible Processes for Origin of Life
and Living Matter with modeling of Physiological Processes of Bacterium Bacillus
Subtilis in Heavy Water as Model System, Journal of Natural Sciences Research,
Vol. 3, No. 9, pp. 65-76.
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Ignatov, I., Mosin, O.V. (2015)
Origin of Life and Living Matter
in Hot Mineral Water, Advances in
Physics Theories and Applications, Vol. 39. pp. 1-22.

Origin of Life and Living Matter in Hot Mineral Water

Prof. Ignat Ignatov,
Dr. Oleg Mosin,
2006, Sofia, Bulgaria; Moscow, Russia


Water for origination of life, Prof. Ignat Ignatov
Scientific Research Center of Medical Biophysics
Prof. Ignat Ignatov©
With scientific achievements of: Dr. Oleg Mosin
Dr. David Ward, Prof. Tadashi Sugawara
Producer: Mandy Protze-Kälberer School©
Zoko films

Water for origination of life, Structure, Prof. Ignat Ignatov
In the warm mineral water with more bicarbonate ions, metal ions and deuterium molecules,
the first living structures were formed (Prof. Ignatov, Dr. Mosin, 2010).
In the similar composition of water with electric discharge like in the the ancient atmosphere
the structure has organized itself.


























































Water is the foundation of life. It is still a mystery for science how non-living matter transformed into a living one. New properties of water have to be studied, though it seems like we know all about it already.

In March 2004 an American space probe found “traces’ of water on Mars and salt in a dried up lake.

Scientists can already presume that perhaps there has been and still is life on this planet.

On two of Saturn’s satellites American space probes found traces of water.

In July 2005 the American space apparatus “Deep Impact” shot a projectile in the Temple 1 comet. The basic module was at a significant distance and effected monitoring about the consequences of the collision by analyzing the chemical composition and structure of the comet’s nucleus. The results will allow the evaluation of the internal composition of the comet. This will help humanity solve the puzzle about the origin of the Solar system and the origination of living matter. American scientists have monitored three sections covered with ice in a small zone on the surface of the comet’s nucleus. According to scientific opinion, water that has transformed into ice contains many admixtures. It is presumed that a much larger quantity of ice is contained in the nucleus. Scientists have long reached the conclusion that comets are fragments from the formation of the Solar system 4,6 billion years ago.

Mars Carlton Allen, Johnson NASA
Mars
Carlton Allen, Johnson
NASA

In August 2008 Nasa’s Phoenix lander spacecraft has for the first time identified water in a sample of soil collected from the planet’s surface.

„This is the first time Martian water has been touched and tested”, William Boyton one of the researchers on the mission, explained.

Scientists are more and more convinced that the availability of water on space objects is more a rule, than an exception. The paradigm of public thinking with regard to the properties of water is also changing.

In January 2009 Dr. Michael Mumma from NASA announced that there are three areas on Mars, which slowly release significant quantities of methane. All three areas bear traces of the availability of a lot of land ice or running water.

The methane columns in the Martian atmosphere prove to scientists that probably there exist living microbes under the surface of the planets. According to the scientists, there is no data that methane has been brought to the planet by a celestial body, for example, a comet. There is no evidence that the gas is a product of volcanic activity, for example the presence of sulphur dioxide. According to researchers, if methane originates from microbes, they probably live deep under the lifeless Martian surface - at a depth where it is sufficiently warm so that liquefied water could exist.

Sunset, Moon observed from the North Pole of the Earth, 2009
Sunset, Moon observed from the
North Pole of the Earth, 2009

NASA announced on November 14, 2009, that a "significant quantity" of frozen water was found on the Moon. The probe has detected the presence of water in a constantly eclipsed lunar crater. "The discovery opens a new chapter in our understanding of the Moon, scientists from the U.S. space agency reported. The new data was received after NASA sent two space shuttles, which were wrecked on the lunar surface in October 2009 in an attempt to detect water. Previously, scientists supported the theory that, besides the possibility of the existence of ice at the bottom of craters, the Moon was totally dry.

Beyond the facts, let's look at the discovery from the position of biophysics. The average distance from the Earth to the Moon is 384 400 km. Indeed, this scientific achievement overturns the paradigm for the presence of water in the Solar system. Both Moon and Earth are practically the same distance from the Sun. The discovery of American scientists will help us to appreciate better the factors that contribute to the emergence of living matter.

peak Petrahelios, Teteven, Bulgaria
Maybe this is how the world on another planet looks like,
peak Petrahelios, Teteven, Bulgaria,
photo Alexander Ignatov

In 2001 scientists from the scientific and research center IMSat NASA and the University of Santa Cruz, California, conducted an experiment close to the conditions of the young Solar system.

A mixture of different substances (water, methanol, carbonic acid and carbon dioxide) was cooled down to 10° К ( –263,16° С ).

The mixture was irradiated with an ultraviolet light of the same wavelength that has existed in the dense molecular cloud from which the Solar system was structured. Organic molecules were formed. In this mixture self-organizing structures with dimensions of 10 µm were found. By their form they are bubbles resembling cells.

water_fig_gl581pl1.jpg

The planet Gliese 581 C orbits the faint red star Gliese 581, which is 20.5 light-years away in the constellation Libra.

The scholars Udry and Mayor of the Geneva Observatory say the benign temperatures on the planet mean any water there could exist in liquid form, and this raises the chances it could also harbour life.

"We have estimated that the mean temperature of this 'super-Earth' lies between 0 and 40 ° С, and water would thus be liquid," explained Udry, lead author of the scientific report reporting the result.

Moreover, Gliese 581 C radius should be only 1.5 times the Earth's radius, and models predict that the planet should be either rocky - like our Earth - or covered with oceans."

Delfosse from Grenoble University, added: "Liquid water is critical condition to life as we know it."

The observatories would seek to identify trace atmospheric gases such as methane, and even markers for chlorophyll, the pigment in Earth plants that plays a substantional role in photosynthesis.

My opinion is that it is absolutely possible for the “bio computer” water with its “memory” and substances with a efforts of nature “forces” to create „living” water and in this water -living cells on the planet Gliese 581 C.

water_fig_01.jpg

Living organisms and man are complex self-organizing systems. They areopen, because they continually exchange substances and energy with the environment. The changes in the open systems are relatively stable in time. The stable correlation between the components in an open system is called a dissipative structure (Nikolis, Prigozhin, 1973).

It has been proven experimentally that water is also a self-organizing system (Antonov, Galabova, 1992). The expectations are that changes in water as a result of an external influence will be relatively stable in time.

This signifies that water “remembers” physical or chemical influences. The question about water“memory” is of exceptional interest. The first research studies, related to the memory of water, were effected by Deryagin and Churaev (1971). The durability of the results in time after an “activation” with an alternating magnetic field and upon electrolysis through a nuclear filter were performed by Minenko (1981) and Evseev (1982). Analyses have been carried out on the changes in the spectrum of natural waters (Antonov and co-authors, 1995). The question of how long information is stored by the water molecules is controversial in modern science. On the other hand, water has a number of unique properties that allow it to store and disseminate information as a result of the external physical or chemical factor of influence. In a physical sense the correct term is “informationability” of water (Dr. Ignatov). Yet one can hardly explain the origination of living matter without this property (Dr. Ignatov).

According to the originator of quantum mechanics, Schrodinger,living organisms decrease their own entropy at the expense of the increase of environmental entropy. According to Prigozhin, the formation of dissipative structures and their complication is related to changes in entropy.

The origination of a living cell is possible under extreme conditions and, with time, the stabilization of said conditions, which preserves the originating structures. The formed self-organizing structure aims to safeguard its state from the conditions of the external environment. This calls for the universal solvent –water – with its unique properties and specific substances. The vitality of living matter is proved even in the existence of archi-bacteria. They live in conditions of strong radioactivity, low temperatures, in volcano craters.

Waterfall, Teteven, photo: Alexander Ignatov
Waterfall, Teteven, photo: Alexander Ignatov

It looks like the water drop evaporates gradually. Antonov and Yuskeselieva prove a new physical effect. The water drop evaporates discreetly (unevenly). This effect depends on the energy states of the hydrogen bonds between the oxygen atoms of the water molecules and the hydrogen atoms of neighboring molecules.

Antonov and Galabova prove through spectral analysis that water is an open and self-organizing system. Water and the living organisms react sensitively to energy flows and store information from the environment. They apply the method of the Differential Non-equilibrium Energy Spectrum (DNES).

The water molecule clusters are the smallest and most unstable self-organizing structures in Nature (Ignatov, 2005). Changes in the water clusters as a result of internal influences could be relatively stable in time. The larger the cluster formation, the longer time information is stored regarding the physical or chemical factor. Stable self-organizing structures are obtained, which could carry future information concerning living matter.

Water molecules are restructured as a result of external influences. When they have received energy, they transfer information about their status to neighboring molecules through hydrogen bonds. This is done on the resonance principle (Zenin, 2002 ), (Ignatov, 2005).

water_fig_03.jpg
Hydrogen bond between water molecules
Clusters of water molecules are structured
with the hydrogen bonds

In order to explain the structuring of clusters, one should approach it from a quantum-mechanic way. In the contrary case, one would find it hard to explain how the water molecules are structured in geometric clusters (“polymers”).

The classic polymer – this is a molecule in which the atoms are connected through covalent bonds, not through hydrogen ones. It is experimentally proven, that 10% of the hydrogen bonds inice are covalent (Isaac, 2002).

There exist interesting proof already that several molecules from a certain substance can significantly change the structure of water clusters. Homeopathy is a classical example for this. Experiments were conducted under the leadership of the eminent French immunologist Benveniste. The homeopathic principle was reproduced on biological models. When to one of the immune cells types in man specific antibodies interacting with them were added, a cell reaction was observed. Upon decrease of the concentration of the antibodies in some dilutions, an effect was observed, and in other cases – it disappeared. Such an alteration of biological activity of “solutions” was also observed in concentrations when the probability of the presence of even one protein molecule was only slight. The authors presumed that the transfer of biological information was due to the “memory” of water. “Double blind” experiments with homeopathic solutions of Benveniste do not prove the initially obtained positive results.

Experiments have been conducted with inorganic substances,which were diluted according to the homeopathic principle. Ray decided to disprove the homeopathic views. He diluted sodium chloride ( NaCl )and lithium chloride ( LiCl ) to a minus tenth degree. He also researched water with thermo-luminescence. The strange thing was that the researched solutions had a different spectrum.

Research has been effected concerning the alterations in the spectrum of homeopathic solutions from 1 to 15 potencies (“solutions”) (Ignatov, 2005). The research was conducted through the DNES method of natrium muraticum (NaCl) . At 1 CH the solution has 0.01 %, and at 2 CH it contains0.0001% of NaCl, etc. In this process the solution passes the Avogadro number. After this value it is accepted that no molecules of the diluted substance are present.

Analyses show that up to 6 CH, the changes in the homeopathic solutions are close to the result at 1 CH. At 5 CH the concentration of the solution is 10-10 for NaCl, as in Ray’s experiments. After 11 CH, the result is close to or is in the framework of the statistical error.

water_fig_06.jpg

The larger number of molecules of NaCl in the initial potencies creates conditions for stability of the clusters formed from the initial substance and the water molecules. The potency process“transfers” information to the larger potencies as well. This information is more “unstable”, when,subsequently, it is transferred by water molecules only.

Studies of the properties of homeopathic solutions have one peculiarity. In the homeopathic solution the effect is influenced not only by the diluted substance and the potentiation, but also by a third feature that researchers do not report. The solution itself is potentiated in an electromagnetic device and electromagnetic fields indicate to the device an influence on the hydrogen bonds between water molecules. This means that this method of preparation of homeopathic solutions can not serve for the making of fundamental conclusions about informational properties of water (Dr. Ignatov).

There is indisputable proof that water lies in the foundation of living matter in the favorable conditions of our planet. Without the property of water “informationability”, one could hardly explain the origination of living matter. The clusters, which interact with chemical substances, effect evolution. The element that has played a decisive role is carbon (C). The small size of the atom allows for the carbon chains to bend. An indicator for the organic origin of carbon on Earth is the change of the ratio between its isotopes 12С and 13С for 3,8 billion years.

water_fig_07.jpg

Yet what is the probability for a formation of water clusters, micro elements and additional conditions to create organic molecules, and,subsequently, living cells. Lets look at the smallest living cells. The smallest bacterium Micrococcus progrediens is 0.1 µm in diameter. The myco plasma is also 0.1 µm. This means that these cells are 1000 larger in diameter than the hydrogen atom. The myco plasma has the requisite macro molecules for the existence of a living cell. The interesting thing for it is that it has a flexible membrane, not a solid one, like the other cells. The myco plasma reproduces through the formation of coccus-like structures or division. The electric properties of the membrane, which is 0.1 µm wide, do not differ from those of the remaining cells.

The mathematical probabilities for the formation of stable water clusters cannot be computer calculated. The computer can calculate the probable positions of 8 water molecules. This is a proof for the huge potential of the “memorization” of water.

The presence of the elements carbon (C), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), etc., could lead to the formation of cluster structures that are more stable in time. The stability of these clusters depends on the resonance between the separate molecules. The availability of carbon compounds and ions of chemical elements could lead to an uncompensated electric charge and potential in a structure that is stable for the effectuation of biological processes.

The conduct of an electric bio-current and the structuring of the cellular membrane has made possible the transition from non-living to living matter. Additional experiments are required for the clarification of this process. Erythrocytes consist predominately of a cellular membrane, and blood contains 92% water. Life on Earth has an unified origin, because each living cell has 20 amino acids, 2 carbohydrates and 1 phosphate.

water_fig_sunset.jpg
Sunset, Photo Lieselotte Eder

Under certain conditions one could also speak of “activated” water. Yet this statement brings suspicions in some scientists. It is proven that cancer cells “lacerate” the energy hydrogen bonds among water molecules the most (Antonov, Galabova, 1992). Yes, water can be ‘activated’ and bear information regarding the living. One of Emoto’s experiments shows crystallized water after a strong earthquake and 3 months later. A conclusion can be drawn from this experiment too that, under favorable conditions,water can concentrate information in a small volume of water clusters.

Emoto’s crystals provoke both an interest and an insufficiently grounded criticism. If we look at them more carefully, we will see that they are structured with six apexes. Yet an analysis that is even more detailed shows that winter snowflakes are also always symmetrical and have six branches. To what extent do these crystallized structures carry information about the environment they have been created in? Snowflakes can be beautifully structured and formless. This shows that the “control sample” (a cloud in the atmosphere) from which they originate influences them with the initial conditions. The initial conditions are solar activity, temperature, geophysical fields, humidity, etc. This means that a conclusion can be made for the approximately similar structure of the water drops and afterwards snowflakes from an “average” ensemble. They have an almost identical mass and move in the atmosphere with a close speed. In the atmosphere they continue to structure themselves and to increase their volume. Even if they have originated at a different place in the cloud, there is a sufficient number of snowflakes that have originated in almost identical conditions.

We can find an answer to the question what is a “positive” and “negative” information about snowflakes with Emoto. In laboratory conditions, “negative” information (earthquake, “bad” acoustic vibrations for man, etc.) does not structure crystals. But “positive” information does. Yet it is interesting to what extent one factor can structure identical or similar snowflakes. Water is at its most dense at a temperature of 4°C. It has been scientifically proven that its density decreases with the initiation of formation of hexagonal ice crystals upon decrease of temperature below 0°C. This is due to the hydrogen bonds between the water molecules.

But what is the reason for this structuring. Crystals are solid bodies whose constituent atoms, molecules or ions are arranged in a regular, repetitive structure in the three spatial dimensions. In water the crystal structure is slightly different. According to Isaac, only 10% of the hydrogen bonds in ice are covalent, i.e., sufficiently informationally stable. The hydrogen bonds between the oxygen of one water molecule and the hydrogen of another are most sensitive to external influences. The water spectrum in the cluster arrangement is relatively different in time. According to the effect of discreet evaporation of the water drop proven by Antonov and Yuskesselieva and the dependency of this effect on the energy states of the hydrogen bonds, we can search for an answer regarding the structuring of crystals. Each part of the spectrum depends on the surface tension of the water drops. The piques in the spectrum are six and informationally they “direct” the branches of the snowflake (Dr. Ignatov, 2009).

Apparently, in Emoto’s experiments, the initial “control” sample influences the crystal type. This means that after an influence with a specific factor, similar crystals could be expected. It is almost improbable to receive identical crystals. With the example for the influence of the word “love” on water, Emoto has not indicated clearly whether the experiment has been conducted from different samples.

“Double blind” experiments are required to check whether Emoto’s methodic is sufficiently differentiated. Isaac’s proof that 10% of the water molecules form covalent bonds after freezing shows us that probably water uses this information potential upon freezing. The achievement of Emoto even without “double blind” experiments remains sufficiently significant with regard to water’s information abilities.

Natural snowflake Wilson Bentley, 1925
Natural snowflake
Wilson Bentley, 1925
Snowflake of Emoto, formed by natural water
Snowflake of Emoto,
formed by natural water

One of the snowflake is natural, the other has been created by Emoto. The similarity indicates that the variety in the water spectrum is not infinite. Research has been made of the spectrum of natural waters from Teteven, Troyan, Rila Monastery (Bulgaria), Gersfeld (Germany). The spectrum is highly energy-charged at the strongest hydrogen bonds. With deionized water such a characteristic is missing. The cancer cells “tear” most highly the energy bonds in water. This means that “natural” waters carry the requisite living energy (Dr. Ignatov, 2009).

On November 15, 2008, an earthquake with a magnitude of 4.0 on the Richter scale was registered with an epicenter in Sofia.

Earthquake, Sofia, November 2008
Earthquake, Sofia,
4.0 Richter scale, 15 November 2008,
Prof. Ignatov, 2008©, Prof. Antonov's device©

The figure shows the difference between the control sample and the ones from the remaining days. The water molecules “tear” most highly the energy hydrogen bonds in water, as well as two piques in the spectrum during the natural phenomenon. The research was made with Antonov’s device. The biophysical result shows a decrease of the organism's vitality during an earthquake (Ignatov, 2008). During an earthquake, water cannot be structured into snowflakes in Emoto’s laboratory. There is evidence about a change in the electric conductivity of water during an earthquake.

In 1963, the Tanzanian high school student Erasto Mpemba observed that hot water freezes faster than cold water. This phenomenon is called the “Mpemba effect”. Actually, much earlier than Mpemba, this unique water property was noted by Aristotle, Francis Bacon, and Rene Descartes. This phenomenon has been proven with a series of independent experiments. Water demonstrates yet another one of its strange properties. In my opinion, the explanation is the following: the differential non-equilibrium energy spectrum (DNES) of boiled water has a smaller average energy of the hydrogen bonds among the water molecules than the sample having a room temperature (Ignatov, Antonov, Galabova, 1998). The boiled sample needs less energy to begin to structure crystals and to freeze (Dr. Ignatov, 2009).

To what extend can Emoto’s experiments be related to the “informationability of water. His experiments prove that water reacts to external influences. In his laboratory snowflakes lack the natural variety. They are formed in more standardized conditions. The valuable thing is that he demonstrates that water “remembers” external influences. The question regarding the longevity of this information in his experiments remains open.

water_fig_09.jpg water_fig_10.jpg
A B

Crystallized water after a strong earthquake (A) and 3 months later (B), Emoto.

Defrosted water is exceptionally “active”. In spring, an increase of the amplitudes in the spectrum of water, measured through the DNES method is observed. In this season birds and animals drink water from defrosted ice. Plants also grow quickly from this water. Defrosted water has a stimulating effect and is used successfully for the convalescence of diseased people after an operation. Scientists from the Royal Medical Institute in Stockholm report of a successful treatment of diabetes with defrosted water. The healing properties of defrosted water are due not only to the more “active” spectrum. Even more "active" is the protonated water. In this water deuterium is cleaned out and the water is “active” with regard to man’s vitality. In this water the deuterium is cleaned out and it is "active" for man's vitality. Deuterium is practically cleaned out by freezing a small part of the water. The layer of ice contains the deuterium and it is removed. The remaining drinking water is protonated, i.e. deuterium-free water. Similar properties can be found in mountain water in which the process of cleaning out the deuterium is effected during the passage of water through earth layers. The water molecules in which the hydrogen atoms are from the deuterium isotope have difficulty passing through the cellular membrane. Marinov reported of a quick growth of flowers in Siberia. Together with Russian scientists in the 70ies, he proved that the water in the region contained less deuterium. Experiments were conducted proving “activation” of the spectrum of water, which is frosted after bioinfluence in “give” mode and defrosted before the spectral analysis.

Mosin from Russia has a unique contribution in the experiments with water that contains deuterium.

New achievements in the studies of water structure allow to better analyze the conditions for the emergence of life. It is difficult to presume that life has originated in “chaotic” water (Ignatov, 2010). Living organisms and water (Antonov, Galabova, 1992) are complex self-organizing systems. Schrödinger clearly defines that living organisms reduce their own entropy at the expense of increasing the entropy of the environment.

Self-organization can most logically explain the origin of living matter. The term itself was introduced in 1947 by Ashby. The dissipative structures of Prigozhin and the hyper cycles of Eigen show that life is most probably not the result of chaotic processes. Prigozhin demonstrated that the formation of dissipative structures and the increase of their complexity is associated with changes in entropy.

For their achievements, both scientists separately received the Nobel Prize.

In late 2009 and early 2010 I carried out experiments with control “deionized” water, mineral water, sea water, and mountain water from Bulgaria. Water from karst springs was also studied. The experiments were made with Antonov’s device for spectral analysis of water. Cactus juice was studied too (Ignatov, 2009). The cactus was selected as a model system because the plant contains about 90% water. Also, photosynthesis is carried out by the enlarged stems, which serve for storage of water as well. Mineral water from different springs was examined.

Closest to the spectrum of sap, however, is the spectrum of mineral water, which reacts with calcium carbonate (СаСО3). Karst springs have a similar spectrum. Closest to the spectrum of sap is the spectrum of karst springs water, which interacts with mineral water.

In nature there are places with different water and identical external conditions. 25 km away from Teteven there is the Zlatna Panega karst spring with a temperature from 10 to 12,5 °C. Three mineral springs with an average temperature of 21 °C pour into the lake formed by the spring. Only a few kilometers away is the Vit river with an average temperature of around 15 °C. Photographs demonstrate the obvious difference between the plant life in the water of the river and the karst spring. This is visible proof of the optimally good place for the active life of algae under identical external conditions. The difference is only in the structure of water.

Karst and mineral spring, vegetation
Karst and mineral spring, vegetation
Zlatna Panega, Teteven district, Bulgaria
Photo: Alexander Ignatov
Vit river, Teteven district, vegetation
Vit river, Teteven district, vegetation
7 km away from Zlatna Panega, Bulgaria
Photo: Alexander Ignatov

Close in value peaks in the amplitudes of the spectra of sap and of karst and mineral springs, which interact with calcium carbonate are observed. Peaks are found at -0.1112, -0.1187, -0.1262, -0.1287 и -0.1387 еV. The average energy of the hydrogen bonds between water molecules in the creation of cluster formations is measured. Similar amplitudes in the spectrum between the sap and the mountain and sea water is observed at -0.1362 еV. The spectrum of the control “deionized” water is substantially different from that of sap, mineral and mountain water.

There are three components that are exceptionally important before we proceed further. Modern physics can determine the composition of mineral water to the nearest atom. If, however, we mix these ingredients in deionized water, we will not obtain mineral water. Without analysis of parameters that are associated with energy, it is difficult to explain the origin of life as a mixture of organic molecules. Which are the factors that preserve information in a “self-organizing” structure. The more logical outcome is for it to self-destruct. Naturally all these processes have occurred due to energy from the environment.

Oparin, theoretically, and Miller, experimentally, have indicated the possibility for formation of organic molecules in the conditions of the young Earth.

Experiments and analyses indicate close quantum-mechanical distribution according to energies of water molecules between a liquid, which is directly connected with the vital activity of a plant, and mineral and karst water. Mineral water in springs and geysers flows with a nearly constant composition, and long enough. In contact with calcium carbonate (CaCO3), sulphur (S) and other elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, etc.), stable cluster formations are established. And since the external factor is repeated, they are more difficult to destroy. Energy required for maintaining the self-organizing structures directly depends on the heat from the volcanic activity and the magma. It also depends on the solar energy. Entropy depends on the amount of heat and the self-organized structure does not self-destruct because the energy balance is maintained.

A proof of this is that the oldest traces of photosynthesizing organisms are the stromatolites. The oldest stromatolites were found in Greenland. They are 3.8 billion years old. They have a complex laminar structure of calcium carbonate and extract hydrogen from water. Even today they exist in Shark-Bay, Australia. Perhaps there has been mineral water at their very inception at the bottom of the water basins, or after their creation close to the shore, they have spread in water basins. Life has been discovered at the bottom of the oceans under extremely harsh conditions and it was near hot mineral springs.

Планетата джудже 2007 OR10
Dwarf Planet 2007 OR10

One of the unique places in the Solar system is the satellite of Saturn – Enceladus. There the magma maintains liquid water and there is a probability for the existence of life. One of Jupiter’s moons – Europa – holds similar expectations. In August 2011, red-colored ice was discovered on the dwarf planet 2007 OR10 in the Solar system. Analyses showed that these are carbon polymers. The explanation is a beginning of origination of life, when there have been active volcanoes on the planet as an energy source. Solar activity here is too low to sustain life activity.

Waterfall in Teteven, Bulgaria
Waterfall in Teteven, Bulgaria
Photo: Alexander Ignatov

The “Nature” journal indicates that there is new evidence for the origination of vegetation 1.5 billion years ago. You can obtain an impression of the first species of vegetation at the Teteven waterfall.

The plant cell cannot exist without the following organogenic elements C, H, N, P, O, S and the elements Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, B, etc.

Let’s review the following reactions:

(1)   CO2 + 4H2S + O2 = CH2O + 4S + 3H2O

(2)   СаСО3+ HOH + СО2 = Ca(HCО3)2

The first equation shows how some chemosynthetic bacteria use energy from the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) to sulfur (S).

The second equation is related to one of the most common processes in nature.

In the presence of water and carbon dioxide, calcium carbonate transforms into calcium hydrogencarbonate.

In the presence of hydroxyl OH- ions, the cellular processes are activated. Kagava demonstrates that an effect of improving the conductivity of the cell membrane is observed. The valid reaction is:

(3)   CO2 + ОН- = HCО3-

(4)   2 HCO3- + Ca2+ = CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O

It is assumed that the second reaction has been valid upon the origination of the stromatolites.

Contemporary chlorophyll contains the elements C, H, O, N, Mg.

Karst spring bubbles
Karst spring bubbles,
Zlatna Panega, Teteven district, Bulgaria
Photo: Alexander Ignatov

When considering the issue of self-organization in nature, there is an exceptionally interesting example found in the karst springs in Zlatna Panega, Teteven district. Algae are surrounded with bubbles 3-5 mm in size. These bubbles are retained long enough – from hours to days. Water itself, which is similar in its spectrum to plants, “seeks” to preserve the self-organizing structures. During the study, the ambient temperature was 5 °C. It is known that if Ca2+ ions are added to a solution of pectin molecules, the solution is gelatinised. The reason is that Ca2+ ions bind to pectin molecules and cellulose microfibrils are formed. There is evidence that this kind of Ca2+ - sutures play a crucial role in the unification of the different components of the cell wall and influence its compactness and strength. Cytoplasm consists of 99% water, ions and other elements that form its basic structure.

In 2003, Arge and McKinnon received the Nobel Prize in chemistry for the discovery of water channels for water penetration into the cells. The aquaporin protein that regulates water exchange plays a role here. By increasing the concentration of calcium ions this process is more active.

cabanero and team carried out experiments, which show the role of Ca2+ in the permeability of the cell wall of plant cells.

Organism with a silicon skeleton
Organism with a silicon skeleton

In the most ancient organisms in evolution a silicon skeleton is observed. These are the sea sponges, the radiolaria and the diatomeae. Silicon was gradually displaced by the more active element calcium. The organisms reached the silicon-calcium skeleton and the most evolutionarily advanced of them – the calcium skeleton.

Molecular biology, almost like a dogma, adopts the model for the structure of the cell membrane. The main part of the membrane is made up of a double phospholipid layer.

In the Sargasso Sea a phenomenon is observed. Membranes of blue-green algae cells are made of phosphorus-containing lipids. The reason is that there is almost no phosphorus and nitrogen in the Sargasso Sea. The unicellulars have found a smart way to use sulfur instead of phosphorus in their lipid membranes. Apparently, in “self-organization” the structures choose the optimal components for them.

However, let's look at the structuring of water clusters.

The effect of Antonov and Yuskeselieva of 1983 showed that the water droplet evaporates discretely (in a salutatory fashion). This effect depends on the energy states of hydrogen bonds between the oxygen atoms of water molecules and the hydrogen atoms of the neighboring molecules. Water molecules themselves are linked into clusters. One of the evidences is the clusters of water molecules sized 1,1 μm / 1,1 μm / 203 Å, photographed by Zenin with an electronic microscope. The obtained result has not been replicated in other laboratories, so it is difficult to be accepted as scientific foundation yet. The very structures of Zenin’s photography are about 40 nanometers in size. A team of Japanese scientists headed by Naguib published information that small clusters of water molecules and carbon have been observed with an electronic microscope. Their size was 20 to 50 nanometers.

(1 nanometer=10-9 meters)

The smallest bacterium Micrococcus progrediens is sized 0.1 μm or 100 nanometers in diameter. This means that self-organization and structuring of living matter may begin within the stable cluster formations.

movement of water molecules
Result of Geissler, Saykally and Smith with with
Raman spectroscopy upon analysis of the
movement of water molecules,
Berkeley University, USA

In 2005 a team from Berkeley University, USA – Geissler, Saykally and Smith, demonstrated with Raman spectroscopy that hydrogen bonds between water molecules are constantly tearing, changing and moving. These results correlate with my quantum-mechanical analysis of water spectrum. In these analyses the relative stability of clusters depends on external factors. Water is different in its structure, and a similarity in the spectrum can be observed in the presence of certain external factors (Ignatov, 2005). Water changes the position of water molecules depending on the energy of hydrogen bonds. The apparatus results and analyses for the presence of “stationary” clusters can hardly be accepted. Cluster formations themselves are dynamic and the “memorization” of information depends on a series of factors. The first results and analyses with Antonov’s device were obtained in 1997.

The chart above shows the results of the PNAS, USA study on the possible number of hydrogen bonds depending on the number of water molecules. Upon an increase of the number of hydrogen bonds, the nano-droplets stability is reduced. This result correlates with my quantum-mechanical analysis regarding dynamic movement of water molecules in their attempt to find a relatively stable condition of clusters of the order of nanometers.

Let us "translate" the results from the chart into the “language” of quantum physics and biophysics. When water droplets evaporate, the spectrum of the hydrogen bonds with the lowest energy, around -0.09 to -0.1 eV is obtained in the beginning. These water molecules may be linked in clusters, and may also be free. At -0.11 eV a peak is observed, which (this is proven experimentally) is related to the presence of calcium ions in the water (Antonov, Galabova, 1992). The two authors have studied a solution of calcium carbonate and water from the “Temnata Dupka” cave, Bulgaria. The results correlate at level of p<0.05. This is part of a cluster formation. With the increase of the energy of the hydrogen bonds among the water molecules to -0.14 еV, the cluster formation completes its structuring. A redistribution according to energies between the water molecules is observed (Ignatov, Antonov, Galabova, 1998).

In the presence of trace elements and compounds, clusters are more stable. In the control “deionized” water measurements show that not many stable clusters are formed.

Studies with the device of Professor Antonov of the spectrum of water that interacts with living tissue show an increase in the parameters of the spectrum between -0.1362 eV to -0.1387 eV. Cancerous tissue in this part of the spectrum decreased these parameters. One cluster formation “begins” to self-organize when it seeks to “preserve” the stronger energy interaction between the molecules in it. We can define “life” energy as “conservation” of “self-organization” of stronger energy levels in clusters of molecules (Ignatov, 2010).

Chaplin defines cluster structures in which the carbon atoms are in the cluster nucleus. His evidence correlates with my examining of the difference between the qualities of water with regard to the creation of cluster formation, which carry information about the living matter. Chaplin considers the structure C60(H2O)80

Chaplin's results correlate with the Hofmeister series. These series are related to the classification of ions in terms of their ability to change structures in water. The measurements with Antonov’s device also correlate with the Hofmeister series.

The results of Chaplin also correlate with the measurements of Andrievsky with piezo gravitometry for (20 - 24 H2O for C60). Similar results were obtained with colorimetry. The number of water molecules at 0 degrees is 60 H2O for C60.

In “depleted” water it is about 20 water molecules. These results and analyses of Chaplin are fundamental to the fact that different types of water have a number of water molecules in terms of their binding with carbon molecules. The amplitudes of the spectrum of “depleted” water are the lowest. The spectrum of the “depleted” water is close to the spectrum of “deionized” water. The amplitudes in natural waters are high, especially in the hydrogen bonds of strongest energy of -0.1362 еV to -0.1387 еV.

Yellowstone National Park, USA
Yellowstone National Park, USA

The evidence shown indicates that the emergence of life depends on the properties and structure of water and also on additional conditions. Mineral water, which interacts with calcium carbonate is closest to these conditions and has left a trace in plants with its structure, and entropy. Next in line with regard to quality are sea and mountain water (Ignatov, 2010). In warm and hot mineral waters the peaks in the differential non-equilibrium energy spectrum (DNES) (Antonov, 1993) are more pronounced in comparison to the peaks in the same water with a lower temperature. This signifies that there is more energy for the preservation of a self-organized structure. The spectral range of DNES is in the middle infrared range from 8 to 14 micrometers. There is the earth atmosphere’s window of transparency for the electromagnetic radiation in the close and middle infrared range. In this interval energy is radiated from the Sun towards the Earth, and from the Earth towards surrounding space. Water changes with a cosmic rhythm. The likelihood of origination of life is biggest in warm and hot water with a specific structure (Ignatov, 2009, 2010). In January 2010, American scientist David Ward and colleagues described fossilized stromatolites in the Glacier National Park in the USA. They are studying microbes in Yellowstone National Park in USA, which are building stromatolites in hot water similar like ancient organisms. Rotorua in New Zealand is a similar place. Stromatolites have lived in warm and hot water in zones of volcanic activity. Warm and hot waters can be heated by magma as well. Their age is 3.5 billion years. These are the first organisms with fossil evidence. This is a confirmation and of the concept based on biophysical analyses for origination of life in warm and hot mineral waters and geysers (Ignatov, 2009, 2010). In June 2010, an article with this evidence was published at an Euromedica congress in Hanover, Germany. In common parlance, the Russian scientist Mosin calls the analyses “Water for the Origination of Life.” In September 2010, the American scientists Stockbridge, Lewis, Yung Yuan and Wolfenden published an article with the popular title “Is the Origin of Life in Hot Water?”. They consider the probability of faster biochemical reactions in hot water. Mosin thinks that in the beginning of evolution there was much more deuterium in water and this is a significant fact regarding its information abilities about the preservation of life.

In September 2011 a team of Japanese scientists led by Tadashi Sugawara also brought us closer to the secret that life has originated in warm or, more likely, hot water. They have created a proto cells, witch are similar of bubbles. For this purpose, they have made an aqueous solution of organic molecules, DNA and synthetic enzymes. The solution was heated to a temperature close to water’s boiling point – 95 degrees. Then its temperature was lowered to 65 degrees. A formation of a proto cells wits membrane was also observed. These proto cells are multiplying. This is a step for creation of synthetic cell. This laboratory experiment is an excellent confirmation of the possibility that life has originated in hot water (Ignatov, 2010), (Ward, 2010). Upon changing the temperature is changing the middle energy of hydrogen bonds among water molecules, as an information bearer of life. (Ignatov, Antonov, 1998).

Movement of hot mineral water rich in minerals
Movement of hot mineral water
rich in minerals
In hot mineral water is “breathing” air
In hot mineral water is “breathing” air

In 2011 the team from the Laboratory of Geology in Lyon, France with head Marie-Laure Pons were studied some of the oldest rocks in the planet and found the mineral serpentinite. It was previously thought that the first living creatures evolved in geysers. The French scientists were proved that in Greenland the water was rich in carbonates, not too acidic. The temperatures would have ranged from 100 to 300°C. The process in geysers also had been possible in the sea. These new results are an excellent confirmation of the possibility that life has originated in hot mineral water (Ignatov, 2010), (Ward, 2010). Also is very important that this process was connected with carbonates (Ignatov, Antonov, Galabova, Stoyanov, 2001).

In Rupite, Bulgaria is possible observation of “scenario” for origination of life in hot mineral water near dead volcano.

In 2012 Brian Switek was published in Nature the report “Debate bubbles over the origin of life”. In 2009 Mulkidjanian and Michael Galperin were published the report that the first cells were developed in zinc-rich environments. Mulkidjanian informed: “Тhe cytoplasm is rich in potassium, zinc, manganese, and phosphate ions, which are not widespread in marine environments, and has lower amounts of sodium ions than outside.”

Disposition of minerals and formation of “structures”
Disposition of minerals and
formation of “structures”

Irene Klotz shows in Discovery News the opinion of Nobel holder Jack Szostak “The accumulation of organic compounds in endorheic (free-standing) ponds is also easier to imagine than in the ocean, and geothermally active areas provide numerous advantages”.

The following experiment was conducted in laboratory settings (Ignatov, 2012). The first living structures originated in the warm and hot mineral water with more bicarbonate ions (HCО3-), metal ions (Na, Ca, Mg, Zn, К etc.) and deuterium molecules (Ignatov, Mosin, 2012). There was a gas discharge (lightning) in the ancient atmosphere and close to the water. The water in the electrode of the Kirlian device has a similar composition. It has electric discharge, like in the ancient atmosphere. Biophysical fields from a biological object and gas discharge are also emitted in a specific zone in the center of the electrode. A structure sized 12/14 mm was formed as a result of the experiment. It resembles a small jelly-fish. No structure is organized in a control sample with water from an electrode. Before being placed in the electrode, water is heated to boiling point and then cooled down. With the increase of the gas discharge duration, the structure is also increased. This experiment demonstrates that under specific external conditions, the organization of structures in the water becomes reality. Water was heated by the magma.

Let us go millions or even 3-4 billion years back. The air of the young Earth was different from the present. It contained little oxygen. It consisted mainly of hydrogen, water vapor, ammonia (NH3), methane (CH4) and others. Also, the strong volcanic activity has emitted into the atmosphere nitrogen (N), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). Even the water was different. In 1996 Mosin made the assumption that water contained much more deuterium in the early evolution. According to this review of the Russian scientist, life began to emerge in water with more water molecules containing deuterium. This water is known as heavy. Heavy water was discovered by American scientist Urey in 1939. The water molecule with two atoms of deuterium isotope is heavier and more electronegative. This water is also colorless. In it, however, chemical reactions proceed more slowly. Only the simplest organisms can exist in 75% water with deuterium. Research of American scientists with ultraviolet telescope showed that the Universe has more deuterium than what we have assumed thus far. This evidence changes a series of views on the evolution of stars and galaxies according to American scholar Lynskey. Interestingly, however, hydrogen bonds in water with deuterium in the water molecules are more stable. This means that in the primary water on Earth the self-organizing structures have managed to preserve themselves for a longer time. There is evidence that during this period there has been a process of structuring of organic molecules.

Meteorites and comets give us much information about the origination of the Solar system. Most impressive is the Murchison meteorite that fell in Australia in 1962. 18 amino acids, which are not of terrestrial origin, have been found in its analysis.

The amino acid glycine, which is the basis of protein, has been found in the tail of the Wild-2 comet in 2009. These scientific advances show that the “building blocks” of life have existed in the origination of the Solar system and the Earth. On our planet the molecules fell in the aquatic environment of evolution. Amino acids and water clusters began to self-organize. This activity was maintained with energy from the magma, the volcanic activity and the solar activity.

The shown analyzes of the water spectrum indicate that most favorable for the development of life are the mineral waters that interact with calcium carbonate and then - sea water (Dr. Ignatov, 2010). The spectrum of karst water is also very close to that of plants. The oldest evidence of living organisms with complex laminar structure of calcium carbonate date 3.8 billion years back. These organisms – stromatolites – soak up silicon dioxide. Karst water itself contains calcium carbonate, actively interacts with living matter and carries information about life from a later geological period. The mixture of karst and mineral water from Zlatna Panega, Bulgaria which shows us the spectrum of mineral water, which interacts with calcium carbonate from a karst spring, is unique. Over 30 springs of mineral water containing calcium and carbonate ions have been researched and have a spectrum that is close to that of the water from Zlatna Panega.

The photograph shows the richness of Chlorella algae in the Rupite, Bulgaria. The place is located near the bottom of a dead volcano. At a temperature of 75 °C the flora boils with life. The water in Rupite is characterized with a greater amount of bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) (1320 -1488 mg / l, Vladeva). It is assumed for these ions, like for calcium ions (Ca2+) that they have been involved in the formation of stromatolites (4). Apparently, the larger amount of carbon atoms is essential for the self-organization of a living cell of molecules. This water contains both sodium, calcium and magnesium ions as well as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), metasilicic acid (H2SiO3), carbon dioxide. Water in Rupite approaches in composition the water in which life has originated. Only a few kilometers away is the river Struma and no such diversity of algae is observed there. Time will tell whether in Rupite there have been stromatolites. It is possible that natural disasters have destroyed them. In Bulgaria stromatolites have been found in the Pobitite Kamani location near Beloslav, Varna district (Nachev). The place is near the Black Sea coast. There are many mineral springs in this area.

Algae, mineral water, 75 °C, Rupite
Algae, mineral water, 75 °C,
Rupite, Vanga’s place
photo: Alexander Ignatov

In the beginning, on the Earth there was a more intense volcanic activity, even at the bottom of the primary ocean. Then silicon was in greater quantity and it interacted with water. Therefore, it was absorbed into living organisms. At a later stage, the organisms began to absorb calcium from the limestone rocks. Organisms with silicon skeleton reach a size of up to several tens of micrometers.

Life on Earth has started to “select” silicon and calcium to build the cell membrane. As shown by the membrane composition of sulfur in the Sargasso Sea, living matter seeks to preserve itself on the basis of self-organization. This is dependent on external conditions and recurring factors as is the water with a specific structure (Dr. Ignatov, 2010).

In 2010 the „Science” journal published information about a scientific experiment of U.S. NASA scientists who succeeded in “making” bacteria replaces phosphorus with arsenic at the Mono Lake in the USA. The bacterium has managed to replace the phosphorus even in the DNA. Generally phosphorus is considered one of the 6 irreplaceable elements of life. This discovery shows how flexible life is.

The first photograph shows one of the stones with minerals that have been found by Dipl. Eng. Tsolo Petkov in Stara Planina mountain near town of Shivachevo. The second photograph shows the stones with minerals that have been found by Dr. Ignatov at the Bulgarian Black Sea coast. The minerals contain silicon (Si), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), etc. They were tested in the Eurotest Control Laboratory, Sofia, Bulgaria.

Photography with minerals
Photography with minerals
Photography with minerals,
Dipl. Eng. Petkov©, Dr. Ignatov

In the early stages of the Earth's development, silicate minerals were able to participate in the origination of life on Earth. The first biological molecules such as ribose, which is part of the DNA composition, could also form at normal temperature. In this process the silicate ions are catalysts and stabilizers of the process. This reaction is called formose and has been studied mainly by Joseph Lambert. This process is possible on the surface of carbonate-clay cliffs. The medium of the formose reaction is alkaline and needs the presence of sodium ions. Mineral water, which interacts with calcium carbonate and contains sodium and others ions, is alkaline and is the information medium for the structuring of a living cell.

An interesting phenomenon is observed in The Black Sea. Below 200 m depth there is hydrogen sulphide (H2S) in the water. In the early evolution some chemosinthetic bacteria use energy from the oxidation of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) to sulphur (S). Perhaps the Black Sea has preserved a memory of this primary ocean.

Gradually in nature there began a “cleansing” of the deuterium from the water. According to Mosin, there are two very important processes. The Earth's atmosphere had no protective ozone layer and was hotter than the present one. Then the volcanic geothermal and electrical processes in the atmosphere saturated it with heavy water vapors (Mosin, 1996). According to astronomers, the Earth's gravitational field is not strong enough to hold the lighter hydrogen and it is dissociated in interplanetary space. This occurs faster than with the heavier deuterium, which is absorbed in the water. At a later stage, water started cleansing the deuterium through natural rocks.

Upon reduction of deuterium in water, evolution is faster. Had the process of cleansing the deuterium not started on the Earth, evolution could have remained “frozen” at a very low stage.

In 1978 Eryomina and Chekulaev published data from electronic microscope of deuterium cells of the bacterium M. Lysodeikticus.

The deuterium cell is larger and a modification of the direction of division. The cell membrane also changes, and it reacts first to the impact of heavy water.

Electronic photograph of the bacterium M. Lysodeikticus

Electronic photograph of the
bacterium M. Lysodeikticus

Electronic photograph of the bacterium M. Lysodeikticus. The first two cells are in protonated water. The third cell is deuterium and is in heavy water (Eryomina, Chekulaev, 1978).

In 1972, Crespi and Katz demonstrated that the increase of the percentage content of deuterium in water reduces plant growth. In 1996 Mosin proved that the alteration of metabolisms in the process of adaptation to heavy water leads to cellular death. With over 50% of deuterium in the water molecules, plants die. Experiments conducted by Mosin show that microorganisms can live in 98% heavy water. Regarding the storage of information from clusters of water molecules, it is considered that a major role in the origin and self-organization of living cells belongs to the deuterium bonds (Mosin, 1996, Ignatov, 2010).

In an experimental plan tap water contains deuterium of more than 100 g. per tonne. Mountain water contains small amounts of deuterium. These two types of water have not existed at the origin of life. Representatives of the Club of Medical Biophysics from Teteven, Bulgaria under the direction of Dr. Ignatov held the following scientific experiment. They watered identical seeds with tap water and mountain water. Plants watered with mountain water grew faster. The larger amount of deuterium reduces the permeability of the cell membrane. The figure shows the result with maize after 1 month of watering (Dr. Ignatov, Tsvetkova 2010).

Plants watered with tap water and mountain water
To the left is the plant
that is watered with tap water.
To the right is the plant,
which is watered with mountain water
from Teteven, Bulgaria
(Dr. Ignatov, Tsvetkova 2010)

Scientifically reliable results were demonstrated by Klima in the growth of plants with different water. When we do research on water, we face its unique properties, which are related to the origination of life.

Artificial protein-like compounds Artificial protein-like compounds
Artificial protein-like compounds,
proteinoids that divide themselves
with the increase of the alkalinity
of the medium, Fox

In the early 60's of the last century the American scientist Fox did an experiment in which an anhydrous mixture of amino acids is heated to 170 °C. 18 of 23 amino acids found in modern organisms were formed. When Fox washed the hot mixture with water or solutions, structures with a diameter of several nanometers were formed. These are artificial protein-like compounds called proteinoids. Proteinoids have the characteristics of proteins. They have a two-layer shell and upon a change of osmotic pressure they tend to divide themselves. Fox has had a success to combine amino acids into short irregular chains – non-matrix synthesis of polypeptides. He described self-organizing structures similar to coacervates and called them microspheres. The proteinoid microspheres divide themselves with the increase of the alkalinity of the medium.

The California Review indicates that an experiment has been made with water, which is similar in composition to the thermal springs in the primary ocean. Water that is rich in carbon dioxide and iron is heated in a container at 130°C. Chromium and nickel sulphide were added. Small membranes around the molecules have been observed. This experiment demonstrates the process of formation of self-organizing membrane structures.

The experiment was based on the hypothesis of Wächtershäuser for the emergence of living matter in thermal springs. The composition of thermal water is missing calcium and silicon, which are necessary for the skeleton of a living organism. There is a possibility that life forms have originated and have disappeared subsequently. The important thing is that under stable external factors there is a tendency towards self-organization. The authors of the experiment indicate that one of the factors for the structuring of the membrane is the alkaline water. Mineral water, which interacts with calcium carbonate, as well as seawater are alkaline.

The theoretical analysis of Oparin, Miller's experiments, Fox and others clearly show that in nature organic molecules can be structured from inorganic ones. In their experiments the main source of energy is heat. In nature, these are solar radiation and magma energy. Another important conclusion is that the origin of life is possible in an alkaline environment. In all cases self-organization is observed.

In the 19th century Pasteur noted that in inanimate nature molecules are symmetrical. In animate nature molecules are mirror image asymmetrical. Proteins are made up of left-oriented amino acids. This property is determined by the rotation of the plane of polarization of light from the molecule. How to explain this phenomenon?

The presence of asymmetry in organic molecules could have been obtained when an open system, which precedes the biosphere, has been in extremely critical non-equilibrium state. Evolutionary transition was effected with a leap, which is typical for self-organization.

An example of this condition are the experiments in which water molecules resemble DNA in nanotubes. American scientists led by Xiao Chen Shen managed to make an interesting experiment. At high pressure and low temperature water molecules of ice form structures resembling the double helix of DNA. Under these extreme conditions hydrogen bonds are "bent".

Water structures as DNA in nanotubes
Water structures as DNA in nanotubes,
Xiao Chen Shen et al, New Scientist, USA

A transition from symmetric molecules of inanimate nature to asymmetric biomolecules of animate nature may have occurred in the early stages of chemical evolution as self-organization of matter. Antonov demonstrates that water is also an open system and shares energy and substances with the environment (Antonov, 1992).

A team of researchers has conducted a very interesting experiment in the Arctic. A drilling was done in the ice at a depth of half a kilometer. Layers of ice from different years were clearly visible. An isotopic analysis was made of the deuterium and of oxygen isotopes. Water has always been able to “remember” information from the respective year. It turned out that the coldest were the XV, the end of the XVII and the beginning of the XIX century. The warmest were 1550 and 1930.

Cluster formation of 6 water molecules
Cluster formation of 6 water molecules,
Michaelides, Morgenstern, Nature

Michaelides from the Nanotechnology Center in London and Morgenstern from the Leibniz University in Hannover have published in the Nature journal results of studies of the nano-level of water. Photography shows the smallest connected formation of 6 water molecules in ice.

Extreme conditions are observed in volcanic activity, the discharges in the atmosphere of the young Earth. The mineral water, which reacts with calcium carbonate, and sea water have a favorable spectrum for the preservation of self-organizing structures. The Kirlian effect in laboratory conditions creates a selective gas discharge. In Miller's experiments there are also non-equilibrium extreme conditions with a gas discharge.

In 2010 Dr. Ignatov managed to conduct an exceptionally precise experiment.

Color Kirlian (electric) images of water droplets of different types of water were photographed. This experiment also shows the relationship between the electric glow and the rotation of the plane of polarization of water molecules in the respective water (Dr. Ignatov, 2010). A team of Ukrainian scientists managed to make black and white Kirlian photographs of different types of water (Pisotska et al., 2007).

Water molecules are polar and they orient themselves according to the external electric field. In the Kirlian method the conductivity of the object does not affect the electric image. Its formation depends on the distribution of dielectric permittivity (Antonov, 1984). The effect of Kirlian is also related to the bioelectric glow of a living object.

When examining the spectrum of water droplets, the electric glow is associated with the polarity of water molecules and their arrangement as a result of the applied external electric field. Polarization is a phenomenon that occurs in electromagnetic waves in which the electromagnetic field oscillates (hesitates, flickers) in one particular plane.

Digital Kirlian Photography of water samples
Digital Kirlian Photography
of water samples©:
1 drop - tap water,
2 mountain water drop,
Teteven, Bulgaria,
3 drop - seawater,
Hammamet, Tunisia,
4 drop - karst and mineral water,
Zlatna Panega, Bulgaria,;
Dr. Ignatov©, Yatsevich©, 2010
Kirlian Photography of water samples on photographic film
Kirlian Photography of
water samples on photographic film©:
1 drop - tap water,
2 mountain water drop,
Teteven, Bulgaria,
3 drop - seawater,
Hammamet, Tunisia,
4 drop - karst and mineral water,
Zlatna Panega, Bulgaria,;
Dr. Ignatov©, Yatsevich©, 2010

The photographing of the Kirlian spectrum is one of the physical methods in which the image has a much better quality on photographic film, than the electric images filmed with digital methods and with Polaroid. The experiment shows that for different water a different electric image is obtained (Dr. Ignatov, 2010). The dielectric permittivity of water is high and this is important for its properties as a solvent. Kirlian images of water droplets show that different water perceives differently the electric field.

Experiments with the electric glow of water droplets prove the self-organization as a result of the polarization of water clusters with a tendency to store information in a living cell. Kirlian glow is basically related to dielectric permittivity and respectively the polarization of the water clusters from an electric field. The best structuring belongs to the water molecules in mineral waters that interact with calcium carbonate and then to sea water, depending on their polarization. A parallel spectral analysis of water shows that the water with the more pronounced electrical images has more pronounced peaks in the spectrum. In the ancient atmosphere there were electric discharges and the indicated analyses show a tendency for ordering and self-organization of water clusters (Dr. Ignatov, 2010).

Tangent of dielectrical losses of water of different animals, Semihina
Tangent of dielectrical losses of water
of different animals, Semihina

The Russian scientist Semihina studied the tangent of dielectrical losses physical indicator for water in different animals (Semihina, 2005). Names of animals in the figure from top to bottom – earth-worms (1), carassius fish (2), mouse (3), frog (4), hamster (5). The largest the extremities in this parameter, especially at 200 KHz or in the kilometer range of the e. m. waves, the highest level of evolutionary development of the animal. This is also an indicator for the “distancing” of the water in the different animals from the initial water for the origination of life. This is also an essential evidence that water is diverse in the various living creatures. When testing water in animals, there are differences in comparison with water in plants and natural waters. In animals bioelectric processes are more dynamic compared to plants. Mineral water, which interacts with calcium carbonate and sea water, is tested as a model system. Therefore it is difficult to make conclusions about the structure of water from bioelectrical indicators in animals without a parallel spectral analysis. Semihina and Krashenyuk demonstrate results with a frog. When there is stress, one can observe a peak at 200 KHz, in a tranquil state the peak decreases. Additional tests are required in order to prove whether stress influences the structure of water.

The second law of thermodynamics states that the entropy of any closed system always strives toward an increase, i.e. increase of chaos. Living organisms are open systems, inside them entropy decreases andorder increases. In information theory, entropy is a measure for insufficiency of information in a physical system and is a function of probability. Entropy is infinite if probability is zero. According to Hawking, the second law of thermodynamics defines that the states of chaos significantly outnumber the states of order. He makes the assumption that in the beginning a system has a small number of orderly states. Over time, this system develops according to natural laws and its states change. At later stages, the states of chaos increase in number. Eventually, its states of chaos increase and so does entropy. He uses as an example the computer’s memory, which is based on the binary numeral system. The direction of time in which the computer saves the past is the same direction in which disorder increases.

Schrödinger demonstrates a correlation between the entropy of living organisms and the environment. Living organisms decrease their own entropy at the expense of the increase of the entropy of the environment.

Entropy is a measure of randomness or disorder of the physical system. It is expressed in the number of possible arrangements of the components. Prigozhin received the Nobel Prize explaining that at a statistical level the chaotic states of living systems lead to an irreversible behavior. Self-structuring and self-organization are observed. He explains the auto-oscillatory reaction of Belousov–Zhabotinsky. Prigozhin shows how together with the increase of entropy, self-organization originates.

According to the author, living organisms decrease their own entropy due to their orderliness. This orderliness increases with the transition from unicellular to multicellular organisms. Cells divide in a particular sequence. Living organisms live with their our own energy, and also exchange substances and energy with the environment. The environment increases its entropy and thus its disorder. Over time, the living organism has more and more difficulties to adapt. This adaptation depends on the consistency and velocity of life processes. Time is a fundamental concept in physics and philosophy and the fourth dimension in space – the time continuum. According to Einstein’s theory of relativity, there are 3 spatial and one time dimension. Time measures the duration and sequence of states and events.

The lichen has preserved a sensation about another time on Earth
The lichen has preserved a sensation
about another time on Earth
Photo: Alexander Ignatov

The more rapid the life processes, the faster the states of orderliness are observed, i.e. entropy decreases. Yet this leads to difficulties in compensating entropy with that of the environment, which is associated with metabolism and energy. These organisms such as mammals are able to live up to 100 years. In trees processes are slower, the states of orderliness are obtained more slowly and entropy decreases more slowly than in animals. There are trees that live more than 1000 years. For example in the turtle life processes are slower than in mammals and faster than in trees. It can live up to 300 years. For each living creature its own time can be defined, which somewhat differs from the time of the environment. This time correlates with parameters of the vital activity of living organisms (Ignatov, 2011).

Dr. Ignat Ignatov with turtle, Halkida, Greece, 2010
Dr. Ignat Ignatov with turtle,
Halkida, Greece, 2010

Living organisms are open systems, entropy decreases and order increases in them.

In the 19th century the French scientist Brillouin defined entropy in information systems. On the grounds of biophysical information flows from the living creatures to the environment and vice versa, information properties and the entropy of water in living organisms are changed (Ignatov, Antonov, 1998). Biophysical parameters are introduced for a change of the average energy of the hydrogen bonds in water. “Informativity” of water is related to decrease of entropy in the restructuring of water molecules as a result of external influence (Ignatov, Antonov, 1998). In 2009 the Russian scientist Dulnev measured the parameters of chaos and order as parameters of entropy for one component in a living organism. Yet the living cell is multi-parameter with regard to biophysical parameters (Ignatov, 2011).

When considering the origin of life, the question arises whether there is information in surrounding space for this event. The information in the electromagnetic spectrum spreads with the speed of light. The plant world has originated 1.5 billion years ago. The spectrum of reflected light from plants in the red diapason is interrupted. This means that if this information can be disseminated and there is a highly-sensitive apparatus at a distance of 1.5 billion light years, this apparatus at present time will monitor the process that has occurred on Earth 1.5 billion years ago.

Let us imagine that from the Earth there is information at 1 light year. This information is identical on a sphere with a radius of 1 light year. Any observer from this sphere sees different information compared to other observers. Yet each observer from the sphere observes the center in the same way. In this regard, in the electromagnetic spectrum there is no identical information in different points, if a center of the coordinate system for observation has not been marked. This is an illustration of how time and space are related, when information is disseminated at the speed of light. Light quanta or photons have no mass. The presence of mass leads to deceleration. The question remains how fast can living matter with mass move in space.

However, when we obtain information from living organisms, it is in the electromagnetic range. In some of them there are also acoustic waves. But how does time from surrounding space affect living matter?

Here are two examples from Hawking. Let’s observe an airplane that flies over a hilly area. Although it moves in a straight line in three-dimensional space, its shadow depicts a bent path on the two-dimensional earth surface. The mass of the Sun bends space-time as follows. When the Earth moves in a straight line in four-dimensional space-time, to us it seems that it moves in a circular orbit in three dimensional space. The general relativity theory of Einstein stipulates that in proximity to such a massive body like the Earth, time slows down. The development of life is a unique phenomenon and the lifetime of any living thing depends on the speed of its processes, the “vital” energy, which is a measure of entropy, and the exchange of energy and substances with the environment. Diseases are a violation of processes in the organism and they create chaos in the living organism, as well as a shorter lifetime (Ignatov, 2011).

This means that if an earth organism lives on another planet, a series of evolutionary changes will commence, related to gravity, light, water quality, etc. The organism’s own time will change, due to the different entropy and time of the environment.

In the origination of life, Mosin states that the information properties of water have been better because of deuterium molecules in the water. In such water entropy declines faster. Living creatures are part of Nature and the discovery of new planets gives us a chance to also discover extraterrestrial life forms.

Volvox is an example of self-organization of green algae cells. The volvox colony is built from 500 to 20 000 cells. They are associated with cytoplasmic filaments and jelly-like matter. The cells form a globular corpuscle of up to 3 mm.

Volvox
Volvox

The development of volvox has amazing features of self-organization, complication, preservation and exchange of information of living matter. In the process of evolution, a development of multicellularity in plants and animals has been repeatedly observed.

The ability to transmit information from one cell to another in 2010 was proved with a unique experiment by Craig Venter. The American scientist made a difference in modern science. For the first time in the world a cell is living with the genome (the bio computer) of another cell. Only Nature has created life to the level of water cell, atoms and molecules from the environment.

Cell with a genome of another cell, Venter, 2010
Cell with a genome of
another cell, Venter, 2010

The human mind seeks to return to the beginning of life on the basis of evidence and model experiments. Now life exists on the earth, in the air and in water.

When considering the origin of life on the young Earth, the first feature is that it has began in an oxygen-free environment. The energy was from electrical discharges, geothermal and solar radiation. This process is shown in model laboratory experiments. It is possible for a life similar to that on Earth to be born under similar conditions and availability of water on another planet. Moons of Saturn can open the door to life on another body in the Solar system. Enceladus has volcanic activity, and on Titan in 2010 there were unexpected results. On the surface of Mars are observed methane pillars that may be a result from the life activity of microbes.

Is there a life on Titan
Is there a life on Titan,
the biggest satellite of Saturn

Titan is one of the 5 largest satellites in the Solar system together with our Moon and three moons of Jupiter - Ganymede, Io and Callisto. However, it is the only satellite

which has an atmosphere. In 2010 the Cassini space probe made some unique photographs. The presence of life forms that breathe in the atmosphere of Titan is very possible. Perhaps they use the surface chemical compounds, thereby obtaining the necessary energy. NASA scientist Chris McKay stated: "We believe that the hydrogen in the atmosphere of Titan is used by biological forms." He still does not preclude the possibility that this may be a completely new form of biological life, different than the one on Earth. Scientists liken Titan to Earth in its early stages in view of the chemical components of these heavenly bodies. Titan is outside the "inhabitation zone” and the temperature is -170 °C. At this temperature water is in the form of ice and methane is liquid.

Algae and solar energy
Algae and solar energy,
Mountain Vitosha, Bulgaria
Photo: Aleksander Ignatov

The image creates the feeling how living matter "aims" to mimic the fluid of water as an aspiration towards the foundation of earthly life. The impact of the Sun creates a feeling of energy. Why shouldn’t life on another planet look like this?

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Academician publications of Ignat Ignatov on the topic origin of life:

www.medicalbiophysics.bg/en/ignat_ignatov.html

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More Info:

Information about the report is published in one of the most popular Russian sites, connected with the topic of water:
Everything about water
Kirlian Effect in the Study of the Bioenergy Properties of Water
Author: Oleg Mosin PhD (chemistry)

With Bulgarian participation: You would think that you already know everything about the physical properties of water that you have studied in the school physics lessons?
http://www.knowledge-freedom.com/chapter3-2/Chapter3-2.html

Analyses from the report is published in the web site of Carla Fleischli Caporale
EVOLUTIVITY
http://www.evolutivity.info/?p=1098

ВVideo: Water for origination of life, Kirlian effect, Dr. Ignatov in World Press:

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