Nano material Shungite with Carbon and Fullerenes. Shungite Water

Prof. Ignat Ignatov DSc
2021

Abstract

The mineral shungite relates to a new generation natural nano mineral sorbents (NMS). Shungite is named after the village of Shunga in Karelia, located on the shore of Onezhskoe Lake. There is located the only mineral Zazhoginsky deposit on the territory of the Russian Federation. Shungite is an intermediate form between the amorphous carbon and the graphite crystal containing carbon (C), silicon dioxide (SiO2). Shungite carbon is a fossilized organic material of sediments with high level of carbonization. Shungite contains mainly carbon and silicon.
Depending on the carbon concentration (C), the mineral of Karelia can be low-carbon (5% C), medium-carbon (5-25% C) and high-carbon (25-80% C) (Jushkin, 1994). The shungite we work with is high carbon with carbon content (35% C) and silica (SiO2) 51%. The value of (C+ SiO2) in the shungite is (86-88%) (Mosin, Ignatov, 2012).

Introduction

The basis of shungite carbon contains hollow carbon fullerene-like multilayer spherical globules with a diameter of 10-30 nm. The nano material particles’ size is up to 100 nm. Shungite bears the name of nano material with carbon. One of the properties of Karelian mineral is the content of fullerenes. Fullerene is a molecule composed entirely of carbon atoms in spherical or cylindrical shape. Fullerene was discovered in 1985 as an allotrope of carbon (Fig. 1a). For their discovery Kroto, Smalley and Curl share the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. In year 2000 Reznikov and Polekhovskii, using electronic diffraction, manage to take pictures of fullerenes in shungite with sizes 10-30 nm (Fig. 1 b).

Fig 1. Fullerene (1 а) and fullerenes in shungite with sizes 10-30 nm (Fig. 1 b).
Fig 1. Fullerene (1 а) and fullerenes in shungite with sizes 10-30 nm (Fig. 1 b).

In 2011 Gao et al. show the beneficial effects of water that has passed through fullerenes over living organisms. There is an interesting research in 2012 that fullerenes prolong the lifespan of white mice (Baati et al., 2012). Results are confirmed in other laboratories (Gulyar, Tamarova, 2018) (Shytikov et al., 2012).
The carbon fullerene-like multilayer spherical globules in the shungite are 0,001 % w/w. As a basis of nanostructures they have effects.

Results

Table 1 shows the chemical composition of shungites from Zazhoginsky mineral deposit, Russian Federation for purification of water in % (w/w).
Material Safety Data Sheet (TY 5714-007-12862296-01), Limited Liability Company Scientific-Industral Complex Shungite. Russian Federation, the Republic of Karelia.

Table 1. Chemical composition of shungite from Zazhoginsky mineral deposit for water purification in % (w/w)

Chemical component Content, % (w/w)
1 С 35.0
2 SiO2 51.0
3 TiO2 0.2
4 Al2O3 3.3
5 FeO 2.8
6 MgO 1.2
7 CaO 0.3
8 Na2O 0.2
9 K2O 1.5
10 S 1.5
11 H2O 3.0 cryst

Examination was conducted in accredited laboratory “Eurotest control” EAD of chemically clean deionized water that passes through a shungite filter. The document is with No. 5579/28.07.2021 (Attachment 1). Results are in compliance with Ordinance No. 9/ 16.03.2001 regarding the quality of water intended for household and drinking purposes, and show that all parameters are within the required norms.
In 2014 Mosin and Ignatov reveal by the means of spectral analysis that the shungite water has anti-inflammatory effects.
In 2018 Fischer et al., prove how shungite adsorbs Zinc (Zn). There are available results with Manganese (Mn), Ferrum (Fe) etc. (Oliynyk et al., 2019) (Rozhkov, Rozhkova, 2021).
As a sorbent Karelia’s mineral has effects in ammonia, nitrogen, nitrates (Melnyk, Tamila, 2011), nitrites (Mooste et al., 2021). The properties of shungite as a sorbent in wastewater is shown in different studies (Kopylov, Bolgova, Kleymenova, 2019) (Aubakirova and co-authors, 2020). Effects are shown in spirit and alcohols contamination (Melnik et al., 2017), solid adsorbents (Mosin, 2014).

Шунгитова вода, ООО «Шунгит Экспорт», Shungite Export Ltd,
фото: Александър Игнатов
Shungite water,
ООО «Шунгит Экспорт»,
Shungite Export Ltd,
photo: Alexander Ignatov

The scientific research shows that the elimination of heavy metals (Nickel (Ni), Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb) and others) is only possible at temperatures of 1200 to 1400 °C (Mosin, Ignatov, 2013).
Results are achieved with the shungite mineral in microorganisms, plants and animals. The plants and animals are independent indicators, who reflect the pure effects.
A study of Kim, Ku and Lee in 2020 shows crop enhancement effects over cucumbers with shungite. Achieved are results with onions (Ikkonen et al., 2021) and algae (Shanina, Bushev, 2011).
There are positive results in animal lactose - sheep (Bogolubova, Romanov, Devyatkin, 2015) (Fomichev et al., 2015), cows (Bogolubova, Romanov, Bagirov, 2021), cattle (Sineva, 2014).
Effects with shungite are shown in metabolism (Papunidi, Semenov, Kadikov, 2018).
Reducing of heavy metals is beneficial in detoxification (Sajo et al., 2017) (Ignatov, 2018). In 2021 Popova and Ignatov conduct microbiological research of shungite water. The study is performed with Staphylococcus Аureus and Escherichia coli.
Bacteria reduce with 65% in Staphylococci, and with 100% in Escherichia coli, on which shungite water has been applied. The influence was examined with 36 hours of treatment with shungite water. Evidence that the effect is stronger compared with 24 hours of treatment.
Shungite has antioxidant properties. Regular use of shungite reduces reactive oxygen species (ROS). Research is carried out over Ultraviolet B Irradiation-Induced Skin Damage (Sajo et al., 2017). Current study from 2021 of Skrypnik et al. shows antioxidant activity of Karelian Shungite. Bourassa and Kerna prove antitumor effects of shungite.
In 2014 Mosin and Ignatov prove that shungite water suppresses the development of tumor cells at molecular level. In 2018 Bulgarian team of Toshkova, Gluhchev, Ignatov, Tzvetkova conduct a laboratory research proving that certain types of water have antitumor effects. It is for electrochemically activated Catholyte water.
The study was performed over tumors in hamsters. An article was published in Bulgarian Journal of Public Health, Ministry of Health. In 2015, Ignatov, Mosin, Gluhchev and co-authors show that water Catholyte suppresses the development of tumor cells at molecular level.

Conclusions

Application of procedures with shungite and shungite water in Russia is a tradition. In prophylactic centers in Karelia are carried out treatment and rehabilitation procedures – baths, compresses, massages, and stone therapy.
Scientific studies provide evidence of the health effects of shungite water. With Karelian mineral the water can be filtered and purified. Shungite has the ability to clean the water from organic components, metals and bacteria. Passing through the fullerene structures of the mineral, the water is restructured with positive anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.

Proven chemical results of shungite and shungite water:
1. Reduction of ions of heavy metals – manganese, iron, zinc etc;
2. Fluorine;
3. Ethanol and alcohol derivatives;
4. Nitrites;
5. Nitrates;
6. Ammonia;
7. Nitrogen.

Biological effects of shungite and shungite water:
1. Anti-inflammatory;
2. Antioxidant;
3. Improving metabolism;
4. Antibacterial.

Prof. Ignat Ignatov DSc is an author of over 500 scientific articles, cited over 7500 times in Google Scholar, and is included in World Heritage Encyclopedia.

The Bulgarian scientist has carried out scientific projects with the following countries – Bulgaria, Austria, Germany, Switzerland, Denmark, Sweden, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Greece, France, Great Britain, Russia, USA, Chile, Argentina, Romania, Japan, South Korea.

Prof. Ignat Ignatov has 23 scientific articles on the subject of shungite.
He ranks second in the world by number of citations in the scientific literature related to the subject shungite. Some of them are joint for zeoilite properties.
He is quoted on the subject of shungite in Russia, Germany, USA, Japan, South Korea, Kazakhstan, China, Ukraine, Slovakia, Slovenia, Serbia.
The author is cited in Healthline (USA) by Dr Wilson regarding the benefits of shungite, yourwatermatter (Канада), live on live (Canada), shungite.com (USA), elibrary.ru (Russia), znanium.com (Russia), aquafans (Bulgaria).

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Scientific publications mentioned in the article:

1. Jushkin, N.P. (1994) Globular Supramolecular Structure Shungita: Data Scanning Tunneling Microscopy, Reports. Acad. Science USSR, Vol. 337, No. 6, pp. 800–803 [in Russian].
2. Andrievsky G. V., Bruskov V. I., Tykhomyrov A. A., Gudkov S. V. (2009) Peculiarities of the Antioxidant and Radioprotective Effects of Hydrated C60 Fullerene Nanostuctures in Vitro and in Vivo, Free Radical Biology & Medicine, Vol. 47, pp. 786–793.
3. Kroto H. W., Heath J. R., O’Brien S. C. C60 (1985) Buckminsterfullerene, Nature, Vol. 318, pp. 162–168.
4. Reznikov, V.A., Polehovsky, Y.S. (2000) Shungite Amorphous Carbon – the Natural Environment of Fullerene, Technical Physics Letters, Vol. 26, No. 15, pp. 689–693.
5. Gao J. et al. (2011) Polyhydroxy Fullerenes (Fullerols or Fullerenols): Beneficial Effects on Growth and Lifespan in Diverse Biological Models, Plos One.
6. Baati, T. et al. (2012) The Prolongation of the Lifespan of Rats by Repeated oral Administration of [60] fullerene, Biomaterials, Vol. 33, No. 19, pp. 4936-4946.
7. Gulyar, S. A., Tamarova, Z. A. (2018) Influence of Many-Month Exposure to Light with Shifted Wave Range and Partial Fullerene Hyperpolarization on the State of Elderly Mice, Journal of US-China Medical Science Vol. 15, pp. 16-25.
8. Shytikov, D. et al. (2021) Effect of Long-Term Treatment with C60 Fullerenes on the Lifespan and Health Status of CBA/Ca Mice, Rejuvenation Research.
9. Fischer, A. R. et al. Zinc (II) (2018) Adsorption by Low-Carbon Shungite: The Effect of pH, Water, 10, No. 4, pp. 422.
10. Aubakirova, R. (2020) Sorption Extraction of Heavy Metal Ions from Wastewater by Natural and Synthetic Sorbents, Chemical Engineering Transactions,Vol. 81, pp. 343-348.
11. Skrypnik, L. et al. A Study of the Antioxidant, Cytotoxic Activity and Adsorption Properties of Karelian Shungite by Physicochemical Methods, Antioxidants, Vol. 10, No. 7.
12. Papunidi K. Kh., Semenov E. I., Kadikov I. R. (2018) Veterinariya i kormlenie, No. 2, pp. 71-74. [in Russian]
13. Melnik, L. et al. (2014) Water-alcohol Adsorbing Cleaning out of Higher Alcohols by Shungite, Processes and Equipment of Food Productions, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 312-317.
14. Kovalevski, V.V. (1994) Structure of shungite carbon, Natural Graphitization Chemistry, Vol. 39, pp. 28–32.
15. Kovalevski, V.V., Buseckb, P.R., Cowley J.M. (2001). Comparison of carbon in shungite rocks to other natural carbons: an X-ray and TEM study. Carbon, Vol. 39, pp. 243–256.
16. Sajo, J. E. et al. (2017) Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Shungite against Ultraviolet B Irradiation-Induced Skin Damage in Hairless Mice, Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity.
17. Daniel J. Bourassa, D. J., Kerna, N. A., Will Nanocarbon Onion-Like Fullerenes (NOLFs) Play a Decisive Role in the Future of Molecular Medicine? Part 1. Foundation in Fullerenes: Theoretical Application of NOLFs in the Quantum Cell, Nanomedicine and Nanoscience Research, Vol. 3, No. 5, pp. 1-9.
18. Toshkova, R., Zvetkova, E., Ignatov, I., Gluhchev, G. (2019) Effects of Catholyte Water on the Development of Experimental Graffi Tumor on Hamsters, Bulgarian Journal of Public Health, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 60-73.
19. Oliynyk, S., Mel’nyk, L., Samchenko, I., Tkachuk, N., Loginova, O., Kisterska, L. (2019) Influence of Shungite treatment methods on its absorption properties and on water treatment quality for beverages production, Ukrainian Food Journal, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 891-903.
20. Rozhkov, S. P., Rozhkova, N. N., Sychov, M. M. (2020) Shungite Carbon Nanoparticles as Modifiers of Zns: Cu Phosphor, Based on Analysis of the EPR Spectral Lines of Mn+2, Materials Science Forum, Vol. 1031, pp. 201-208.
21. Deremeshko, L. A., Balakina, M. N., Kucheruk, D. D. (2020) Using Shungite in Water Defluoridation by Galvanocoagulation, Journal of Water Chemistry, Vol. 42, pp. 269–274.
22. Melnyk, L., Tamila, Sh, (2011) Adsorption of ammonia nitrogen from water and of nitrate ions from vegetable juices by shungite, 4th International Conference on Carbons for Energy Storage : Conversion and Environment Protection, 25-29.09. - Vichy, p. 145.
23. Mooste, M. et al. (2021) Transition Metal Phthalocyanine-modified Shungite-based Cathode Catalysts for Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 4365-4377.
24. Kim T. Y., Ku, H., Lee, S-Y. (2020) Crop Enhancement of Cucumber Plants under Heat Stress by Shungite Carbon, Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, Vol. 21, No.14, 4858.
25. Ikkonen, E., Chazhengina, S., Bakhmet, O., Sidorova, V. (2021) Effect of Shungite Application on the Temperature Sensitivity of Allium cepa Respiration under Two Soil Water Regimes, Agronomy, Vol. 11, No. 7, 1302.
26. Shanina, S. N., Bushev, D. A. (2014) Isotope Composition of Carbon in Amino Acids of Solid Bitumens, Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 456, pp. 731-735.
27. Fomichev, Yu. P., Bogolyubova, V. N., Romanov, V. N., Kolodina, E.N. (2020) Comparative Assessment of Natural Feed Additives for Functional Effects on the Digestive Processes in the Rumen of Sheep (Ovis aries), Agricultural Biology, Vol. 21, No.14, pp. 770-783.
28. Bogolubova, N. V., Romanov, V. N., Devyatkin, V. A. (2015) The Progress of Sheep Digestion and Digestibility of Nutrients using Mineral Shungite as Ergotropic Substances Source, Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy, No.1, pp. 168-171.
29. Bogolubova, N. V., Romanov, V. N., Bagirov, V. A. (2021) Metabolic Profile of Cows during Feeding Correction in the Late Dry Period and Early Lactation, Russian Agricultural Sciences, Vol. 47, pp. 155-160.
30. Kopylov, M. V., I N Bolgova I. N., Kleymenova, N. L. (2019) Research of Wastewater Treated with Shungite of Novocarbon 10 grade, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Enviromental Science, Vol. 272, No. 2.
31. Ignatov I., 2018, Carbonaceous Fullerene Containing Nano Mineral Shungite. Properties for Purification of Water Detoxification of Human Body, Nanotechnology Research and Practice, Vol. 5, pp. 3-13.

Scientific publications of Prof. Ignat Ignatov:

1. Mosin, O. V., Ignatov, I. (2012) Composition and Structural Properties of Fullerene Analogious Mineral Shungite, Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, Moscow, No. 2, Science of Education, pp. 25-36.
2. Mosin, O. V, Ignatov, I. (2012) Application of Fullerene Analogious Mineral Shungite in Construction Industry and Building Technologies, Nanotechnologies in Construction Industry, Moscow, No. 6, pp. 81-93.
3. Mosin, O. V, Ignatov, I. (2012) Natural Fulleren Containing Mineral Sorbent Shungite in Water Treatment and Water Partification, Clean Water: Problems and Decisions, Moscow, No.3-4, pp. 109-115.
4. Mosin, O. V., I. Ignatov, I. (2013) The Composition and Properties of Fullerene Natural Mineral Shungite, Nano and Microsystem Technique, Moscow, No. 1, pp. 21-26.
5. Mosin, O. V., Ignatov, I. (2013) The Structure and Composition of Natural Carbonaceous Fullerene Containing Mineral Shungite, International Journal of Advanced Scientific and Technical Research, Issue 3, Vol. 6, No. 11-12, pp. 9-21.
6. Ignatov, I., Mosin, O.V. (2013) Perspective for the Use of Shungite in Water Treatment, Communal Complex of Russia, Vol. 113, No. 11, pp.1-5.
7. Mosin, O. V., Ignatov, I. (2013) Composition and Structural properties of Fulleren Analogious Shungite, Biotechnosphere, No. 1, pp. 29-33.
8. Ignatov, I., Mosin, O. V. (2014) The Structure and Composition of Carbonaceous Fullerene Containing Mineral Shungite and Microporous Crystalline Aluminosilicate Mineral Zeolite. Mathematical Model of Interaction of Shungite and Zeolite with Water Molecules, Advances in Physics Theories and Applications, Vol. 28, pp. 10-21.
9. Ignatov, I., Mosin, O. V. (2014) Composition and Structural properties of Fulleren Analogious Shungite, Mathematical Model of Interaction of Shungite with Water Molecules, Acknowledge, Moscow, Vol. 2, No.21, pp. 1-17.
10. Ignatov, I., Mosin,O.V. (2014) The Structure and Composition of Shungite and Zeolite. Mathematical Model of Distribution of Hydrogen Bonds of Water Molecules in Solution of Shungite and Zeolite, Journal of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics, Vol. 2, pp. 20-36.
11. Ignatov, I., Mosin,O.V. (2014) Mathematical Model of Interaction of Carbonaceous Fullerene Containing Mineral Shungite and Aluminosilicate Mineral Zeolite with Water, Journal of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics, Vol. 3., pp. 15-29.
12. Ignatov, I., Mosin, O. V., Bauer, E. (2014) Carbonaceous Fullerene Mineral Shungite and Aluminosilicate Mineral Zeolite. Mathematical Model ans Practical Application of Water Solution of Water Shungite and Zeolite, Journal of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics, Vol. 4, pp. 27-44.
13. Ignatov, I., Mosin, O. V. (2014) The Structure and Composition of Carbonaceous Fullerene Containing Mineral Shungite and Microporous Crystalline Aluminosilicate Mineral Zeolite, Nanotechnology Research and Practice, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 30-42.
14. Ignatov, I., Mosin, O.V. (2015) Carbonaceous Fullerene Containing Mineral Shungite. Alunonusilicate Mineral Zeolite. Interaction of Water Molecules with Shungite and Zeolite, Journal of Health, Medicine and Nursing, Vol. 9, pp. 1-14.
15. Ignatov, I., Mosin, O.V. (2015) Carbonaceous Fullerene Containing Mineral Shungite. Research of Influence of Shungite on Mountain Water, Journal of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics, Vol. 11, pp. 22-38.
16. Ignatov, I., Mosin, O.V. (2015) Research of Influence of Shungite on Mountain Water from Bulgaria. Mathematical Models of Water Influenced from Shungite and Zeolite, Journal of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics, Vol. 12, pp. 1-18.
17. Ignatov, I., Mosin, O.V. (2015) Studying Physical-Chemical Properties of Mountain Water from Bulgaria Influenced by a Fullerene Containing Mineral Shungite and Aluminosilicate Mineral Zeolite by IR, NES, and DNES Methods, Journal of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics, Vol. 14, pp. 19-34.
18. Ignatov, I. Mosin, O.V. (2015) Physical-Chemical Properties of Mountain Water From Bulgaria Influenced by a Fullerene Containing Mineral Shungite and Aluminosilicate Mineral Zeolite, Journal of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics, Vol. 16, pp. 15-29.
19. Ignatov, I. Mosin, O.V. (2015) The Methods of Non-Equilibrium Spectrum (NES) and Differential Non-Equilibrium Spectrum (DNES) in Studying the Interaction of Carbonaceous Mmineral Shungite and Aluminosilicate Mineral Zeolite with Water, Journal of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics, Vol. 18, pp. 15-31.
20. Ignatov, I., Mosin, O.V. (2015) Physical-Chemical Properties of Mountain Water from Bulgaria after Exposure to a Fullerene Containing Mineral Shungite and Aluminosilicate Mineral Zeolite, European Reviews of Chemical Research, Vol. 5., No. 3, pp. 166-179.
21. Ignatov, I., Mosin, O.V. (2015) Physical-Chemical Properties of Mountain Water from Bulgaria after Exposure to a Fullerene Containing Mineral Shungite and Aluminosilicate Mineral Zeolite, European Reviewed of Chemical Research, Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 143-172.
22. Ignatov, I., Mosin, O.V. (2016) Research of the Structural-Functional Properties of the Fullerene-Like Shungite and Micro-Crystalline Alumosilicate Mineral Zeolite by Elemental Analysis, TEM, IR and DNES Spectroscopy, Nano- and Microsystem Technique, Moscow, Vol. 18, No. 6, pp. 357-372.
23. Gluhchev, G. Ignatov, I., Pesheva, Y. (2018) Carbonaceous Fullerene Containing Nano Mineral Shungite. Properties for Purification of Water Detoxification of Human Body, European Journal of Medicine, Vol. 6, No. 2, 61-72.
24. Sineva, A. (2014) Chapter 6 - Adsorption of Synthetic Surfactants from Aqueous Solutions on Natural Adsorbents, The Role of Colloidal Systems in Environmental Protection, pp. 143-171.

Table 1. Physicochemical properties of deionized water filtered with shungite, Document No. 5579 dated 28.07.2021, licensed laboratory „Eurotest control” JSC

Controlled parameter Measuring unit Maximum Limit Value Result
1. pH pH values ≥ 6,5 - ≤ 9,5 6.30±0.11
2. Electrical conductivity µS/ cm 2000 <15.00 (3.13)
3. Total hardness mgekv/ dm3 12 <0.10
4. Color Chromaticity Values Acceptable 6
5. Turbidity FNU Acceptable <1.0
6. Permanent Oxidation mgO2/dm3 5.0 <0.50
7. Odor force Acceptable 0
8. Potassium (K) mg/ dm3 - <0.01
9. Sodium (Na) mg/ dm3 200 0.31±0.03
10. Calcium (Ca) mg/ dm3 150 <0.05
11. Magnesium (Mg) mg/ dm3 80 <0.005
12. Zinc (Zn) mg/ dm3 4.0 <0.001
13. Iron (Fe) µg/ dm3 200 <1.0
14. Manganese (Mn) µg/ dm3 50 <1.0
15. Ammonium ion (NH4+) mg/ dm3 0.50 <0.013
16. Hydrocarbonates (HCО3-) mg/ dm3 - <24.4
17. Carbonates (CО32-) mg/ dm3 - <12
18. Sulphates (SО42-) mg/ dm3 250 <2.0
19. Phosphates (PО4) mg/ dm3 0.5 <0.10
20. Chlorides (Cl) mg/ dm3 250 <0.50
21. Fluorides (F) mg/ dm3 1.5 <0.10
22. Nitrates (NО3-) mg/ dm3 50 <0.50
23. Nitrites (NО2-) mg/ dm3 0.5 <0.05
24. Mercury (Hg) µg/ dm3 1.0 <0.05
25. Cadmium (Cd) µg/ dm3 10 <0.02
26. Copper (Cu) mg/ dm3 2.0 <0.0003
27. Nickel (Ni) µg/ dm3 20 <2.0
28. Lead (Pb) µg/ dm3 10 <2.0
29. Aluminium (Al) µg/ dm3 200 <8.0
30. Antimony (Sb) µg/ dm3 5.0 <1.0
31. Arsenic (As) µg/ dm3 10 <3.0
32. Boron (B) mg/ dm3 1.0 <0.003
33. Selenium (Se) µg/ dm3 10 <3.0
34. Chromium (Cr) µg/ dm3 50 <1.0