History-dependent hydrogen bonds energy distributions in nacl aqueous solutions undergoing osmosis and diffusion through a ceramic barrier

Dimitar Mehandjiev, Ignat Ignatov, Nikolai Neshev, Paunka Vassileva, Georgi Gluhchev, Fabio Huether, Christos Drossinakis

Abstract


An investigation of simultaneous osmosis and diffusion was conducted in a setup consisting of a cylindrical ceramic element initially filled with 0.9 % sodium chloride (NaCl) aqueous solution and immersed a beaker initially filled with deionized water. The cylindrical element was made of kaolin with chemical composition Al2O3 (52 %) SiO2 (47 %) Na2O (0.3 %) K2O (0.7 %) and pore size of 0.1 - 0.2 μm The levels of both liquids were the same at the start of the experiment and their ionic concentrations were monitored by measuring electrical conductivity with two identical meters with fixed probes in the corresponding sections. At a temperature of 20.4oC, the final equilibrium occurred in 339 hours. Subsequently, the hydrogen bonds energy distributions of the two sulutions already with equal sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations were measured with the methods of Non-equilibrium Energy Spectrum (NES) and Differential Non-equilibrium Energy Spectrum (NES). Distinct differences between the spectra were found in the whole range of (-E) from 0.0937 to 0.1387 eV, particularly at (0.1112 eV) (λ = 11.15 μm) (ṽ = 897 cm-1) eV and (0.1362 eV) (λ = 11.15 μm) (ṽ = 897 cm-1). In addition, the average strength of hydrogen bonds in the ceramic element was calculated as greater than that in the beaker.
Keywords: osmosis, diffusion, electric conductivity, hydrogen bonds, energy.


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